The Enneagram of Personality is a model of the human psyche that describes nine interconnected personality types, each with their own unique motivations and fears. These personality types are depicted on a nine-pointed geometrical diagram called the “Enneagram.” Each point on the Enneagram symbol represents a unique personality type. The Enneagram can help people understand their fundamental worldview and behavior patterns, and illuminate paths for personal growth.
Each personality type is categorized into multiple triads (or groups of three types). The primary triad, known as the “centers”, represents the three major centers of human consciousness: Mind, Heart, and Body (or Gut). The other triads include Object Relations (a psychological theory that describes how each type’s ego develops in relation to others), Harmonics (how the types deal with conflict and stress), and Hornevian groups (how the types relate to others).
What is the Enneagram?
The Enneagram is a 9-pointed diagram that combines three shapes: a circle, a triangle, and a hexad (or 6 pointed shape). The word “Enneagram” comes from the Greek words “ennea” meaning “nine,” and “gram” meaning “drawing.” The original modern source of the Enneagram is a controversial Armenian spiritual teacher named George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866–1949). Gurdjieff believed that the Enneagram is a “universal symbol” that can be used to understand any phenomenon. However, the most common modern use of the Enneagram is to understand human personalities.
What is the Enneagram of Personality?
What is the origin of the Enneagram
The origin of the Enneagram is unknown and quite mysterious. The Enneagram has a long and fascinating history. Its origins can be traced back to the early Christian mystics and the teachings of the Desert Fathers and Mothers in the 4th century. However, the modern Enneagram of Personality system was developed in the 20th century by various individuals, including Oscar Ichazo, Claudio Naranjo, Helen Palmer, Don Riso, and A. H. Almaas.
Despite its ancient roots, the Enneagram has gained significant popularity in recent years, particularly in the fields of personal development, psychology, and spirituality. It has been used to enhance self-awareness, improve relationships, and promote personal growth.
Importance of Understanding the Enneagram
Understanding the Enneagram can help us in many areas of our lives. By identifying our Enneagram type, we can gain insight into our unconscious patterns of behavior, our strengths, and our challenges. We can also learn to recognize and appreciate the differences between ourselves and others, which can improve our relationships and communication skills.
The Enneagram can help us develop empathy and compassion towards ourselves and others. By understanding the core motivations and fears of each Enneagram type, we can recognize that everyone is doing the best they can with the tools they have, and we can learn to appreciate the unique gifts and challenges that each type brings to the world.
The 9 Enneagram Types
The Enneagram system is based on nine distinct personality types, each with its unique pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Understanding these nine Enneagram types can help us gain insight into our own personality and those of others, as well as identify areas of personal growth and development.
- Type 1: The Perfectionist, is driven by the desire for perfection, and has a strong sense of right and wrong.
- Type 2: The Helper, is motivated by a need to be needed and valued by others, and has a strong desire to help and support others.
- Type 3: The Achiever, is motivated by the need for success and achievement, and has a strong desire to be seen as successful and admired by others.
- Type 4: The Individualist, is motivated by the need for self-expression and authenticity, and has a strong desire to be seen as unique and special.
- Type 5: The Investigator, is driven by the need for knowledge and understanding, and has a strong desire to understand the world around them.
- Type 6: The Loyalist, is motivated by the need for security and stability, and has a strong desire to be loyal and dependable.
- Type 7: The Enthusiast, is driven by the need for variety and excitement, and has a strong desire to experience new and exciting things.
- Type 8: The Challenger, is motivated by the need for control and power, and has a strong desire to be in charge and make things happen.
- Type 9: The Peacemaker, is driven by the need for peace and harmony, and has a strong desire to avoid conflict and maintain inner and outer peace.
It’s important to note that each Enneagram type is equally valuable and important, and that no type is better or worse than another. Each type has its unique gifts and challenges, and each has the potential for growth and development.
The Influence of Enneagram Wings
In addition to the nine Enneagram types, each person also has an Enneagram wing, which is a secondary type that influences and adds complexity to their primary type. Understanding your Enneagram wing can help you gain a deeper understanding of your Enneagram type and your personal growth journey.
Identifying Your Enneagram Type
Identifying your Enneagram type can be a challenging process, as each type has its own strengths and weaknesses, and we all exhibit characteristics of each type to some degree. However, by exploring the core motivations and fears of each type, and reflecting on our own patterns of behavior and thought, we can gain insight into our Enneagram type.
The Enneagram is a complex system that explores the motivations and behaviors of individuals through nine distinct personality types. However, the Enneagram is not just a static categorization of personality types; it is also a dynamic and evolving system that incorporates several key theories to help individuals understand themselves and others better.
One of the essential components of Enneagram theory is the concept of triads. There are many kinds of triads in the Enneagram, including the three centers of intelligence, the harmonics groups, and the object relations / dominant affect triads.
Three Centers of Intelligence
The Enneagram triads are based on three centers of intelligence – the head, the heart, and the gut – and group the nine personality types into three groups of three. Each triad is associated with a particular way of experiencing and processing emotions and information.
The Gut Triad (Types 8, 9, and 1)
The Gut Triad is associated with the body and the instinctive center of intelligence. Individuals in this triad tend to be more in touch with their physical sensations and gut reactions. They are driven by a need for control and self-preservation, and their core emotion is anger.
The Heart Triad (Types 2, 3, and 4)
The Heart Triad is associated with the emotional center of intelligence. Individuals in this triad tend to be more in touch with their feelings and emotional states. They are driven by a need for love and acceptance, and their core emotion is shame.
The Head Triad (Types 5, 6, and 7)
The Head Triad is associated with the thinking center of intelligence. Individuals in this triad tend to be more in touch with their thoughts and mental processes. They are driven by a need for security and certainty, and their core emotion is fear.
Enneagram Harmonic Groups
Each Enneagram type is part of a harmonic group, which consists of three types that are related to each other in a particular way. Understanding the Enneagram harmonic groups can help individuals understand how their type interacts with other types and how they can work together to promote personal growth and development.
These groups help us understand the commonalities and differences between each type and how they can work together to promote personal growth and development.
Positive Outlook (Types 2, 7, and 9)
The Positive Outlook harmonic group includes Types 2 (The Helper), 7 (The Enthusiast), and 9 (The Peacemaker). These types tend to have a positive outlook on life and are driven by the need for connection, pleasure, and harmony.
- Type 2 (The Helper) is motivated by a need for love and acceptance, and they are known for their nurturing and supportive nature.
- Type 7 (The Enthusiast) is motivated by a need for excitement and new experiences, and they are known for their enthusiasm and optimism.
- Type 9 (The Peacemaker) is motivated by a need for peace and harmony, and they are known for their ability to mediate conflicts and maintain balance.
Competency (Types 1, 3, and 5)
The Competency harmonic group includes Types 1 (The Perfectionist), 3 (The Achiever), and 5 (The Investigator). These types tend to be driven by the need for competence, mastery, and knowledge.
- Type 1 (The Perfectionist) is motivated by a need for perfection and righteousness, and they are known for their high standards and sense of duty.
- Type 3 (The Achiever) is motivated by a need for success and achievement, and they are known for their ambition and adaptability.
- Type 5 (The Investigator) is motivated by a need for knowledge and understanding, and they are known for their curiosity and independence.
Reactive (Types 4, 6, and 8)
The Reactive harmonic group includes Types 4 (The Individualist), 6 (The Loyalist), and 8 (The Challenger). These types tend to be driven by the need to react to their environment and protect themselves from perceived threats.
- Type 4 (The Individualist) is motivated by a need for self-expression and authenticity, and they are known for their creativity and sensitivity.
- Type 6 (The Loyalist) is motivated by a need for security and guidance, and they are known for their loyalty and diligence.
- Type 8 (The Challenger) is motivated by a need for control and power, and they are known for their strength and assertiveness.
Understanding the Enneagram harmonic groups can help individuals recognize their own tendencies and those of others, leading to greater self-awareness, empathy, and personal growth.
The Enneagram is not just a static categorization of personality types; it is also a dynamic and evolving system that incorporates several key theories to help individuals understand themselves and others better. Understanding the Enneagram triads, levels of development, centers of intelligence, and harmonic groups can help individuals gain a deeper understanding of their Enneagram type and promote personal growth and development.
Object Relations / Dominent Affect Groups
Object Relations theory posits that our early relationships with caregivers create internalized “objects” that influence our relationships with others throughout our lives. These objects can be positive or negative, and they form the basis for our attachment styles and interpersonal dynamics.
In the Enneagram, three triads of types are based on Object Relations theory:
- Attachment types: 3, 6, and 9
- Frustration types 1, 7, and 4
- Rejection types: 2, 5, and 8
Each triad is defined by a common early childhood experience and resulting attachment style.
Attachment Types (3, 6, and 9)
The attachment types all experienced a lack of consistent and reliable caregiving in childhood. As a result, they learned to adapt and become self-reliant in order to get their needs met. Attachment types tend to be focused on achieving success and gaining approval from others, and they may struggle with feelings of anxiety and insecurity.
- Type 3 (The Achiever): Threes learned to adapt by being successful and achieving recognition from others. They tend to be focused on accomplishments and may struggle with feeling like they are only valuable when they are achieving.
- Type 6 (The Loyalist): Sixes learned to adapt by seeking safety and security through loyalty to others. They tend to be focused on building relationships and may struggle with anxiety and self-doubt.
- Type 9 (The Peacemaker): Nines learned to adapt by avoiding conflict and creating harmony in their environment. They tend to be focused on maintaining peace and may struggle with assertiveness and decision-making.
Frustration Types (1, 7, and 4)
The frustration types all experienced a sense of disconnect from their true selves in childhood. As a result, they learned to cope by seeking out new experiences and finding ways to express their authentic selves. Frustration types tend to be imaginative and creative, and they may struggle with feelings of dissatisfaction or restlessness.
- Type 1 (The Perfectionist): Ones learned to cope by creating structure and order in their environment. They tend to be focused on following rules and may struggle with feeling like they are never good enough.
- Type 7 (The Enthusiast): Sevens learned to cope by seeking out new experiences and avoiding pain. They tend to be focused on fun and may struggle with feeling like they are missing out on something.
- Type 4 (The Individualist): Fours learned to cope by expressing their unique identity and emotions. They tend to be focused on authenticity and may struggle with feeling like they are fundamentally flawed or misunderstood.
Rejection Types (2, 5, and 8)
The rejection types all experienced a sense of rejection or neglect in childhood. As a result, they learned to cope by either seeking out relationships in order to feel valued (2), withdrawing from others in order to protect themselves (5), or asserting their dominance in order to control their environment (8). Rejection types tend to have strong boundaries and may struggle with vulnerability or emotional intimacy.
- Type 2 (The Helper): Twos learned to cope by seeking out relationships in order to feel valued and needed. They tend to be focused on meeting the needs of others and may struggle with feeling like they are only valuable when they are helping others.
- Type 5 (The Investigator): Fives learned to cope by withdrawing from others and seeking out knowledge and understanding. They tend to be focused on analyzing and may struggle with feeling overwhelmed by emotions or social situations.
- Type 8 (The Challenger): Eights learned to cope by asserting their dominance and control over their environment. They tend to be focused on protecting themselves and those they care about and may struggle with vulnerability or perceived weakness.
Understanding the Object Relations triads can provide valuable insights into how each Enneagram type interacts with others and how they form and maintain relationships. By recognizing their early childhood experiences and resulting attachment styles, individuals can begin to work on developing healthier and more fulfilling relationships with those around them.
Enneagram Levels of Development
Another critical component of Enneagram theory is the concept of levels of development. The Enneagram levels of development describe the various stages of personal growth and development that individuals can experience within each Enneagram type.
According to Don Riso, there are nine levels of development within each Enneagram type, and they range from the most unhealthy to the most healthy expression of that type. Understanding the levels of development can help individuals identify their current level of personal growth and development and work towards higher levels of health and well-being.
Enneagram in Practice
While understanding the Enneagram theory is essential, it is only the first step in using the Enneagram as a tool for personal growth and development. In practice, the Enneagram can be applied to various areas of life, such as personal growth, relationships, the workplace, and spiritual development.
Using the Enneagram for Personal Growth
One of the primary benefits of the Enneagram is that it can help individuals develop self-awareness, which is essential for personal growth and development. By understanding their Enneagram type, individuals can recognize their strengths, weaknesses, motivations, and fears, and use this knowledge to work towards greater self-awareness and personal growth.
Some ways to use the Enneagram for personal growth include:
- Reflecting on how your Enneagram type manifests in your life
- Identifying patterns of behavior and thought that may be holding you back
- Setting goals for personal growth and development
- Developing self-compassion and self-acceptance
Using the Enneagram in Relationships
The Enneagram can also be a valuable tool for improving relationships. By understanding their own Enneagram type and those of others, individuals can develop greater empathy, understanding, and communication skills, leading to more fulfilling relationships.
Some ways to use the Enneagram in relationships include:
- Identifying the Enneagram types of those close to you
- Recognizing and respecting the differences between your Enneagram types
- Using Enneagram-based communication techniques to improve communication and understanding
- Supporting each other’s personal growth and development
Using the Enneagram in the Workplace
The Enneagram can also be applied to the workplace, helping individuals and teams develop greater self-awareness, communication, and collaboration skills.
Some ways to use the Enneagram in the workplace include:
- Identifying the Enneagram types of colleagues and team members
- Recognizing and respecting the differences between Enneagram types in the workplace
- Using Enneagram-based communication techniques to improve collaboration and teamwork
- Developing Enneagram-based leadership skills
Enneagram and Spiritual Development
The Enneagram can also be a tool for spiritual development, helping individuals gain a deeper understanding of their spiritual journey and their relationship with the divine.
Some ways to use the Enneagram for spiritual development include:
- Exploring the spiritual dimensions of your Enneagram type
- Using Enneagram-based practices, such as meditation or contemplative prayer, to deepen your spiritual practice
- Reflecting on how your Enneagram type influences your relationship with the divine
- Using the Enneagram to identify areas of spiritual growth and development
Enneagram Exercises and Practices
In addition to using the Enneagram for personal growth, relationships, the workplace, and spiritual development, there are also many Enneagram exercises and practices that individuals can use to deepen their understanding and practice of the Enneagram.
Some Enneagram exercises and practices include:
- Enneagram typing questionnaires and assessments such as our Enneagram test.
- Enneagram journaling or inquiry prompts
- Enneagram-based meditation or visualization practices
- Enneagram workshops and retreats
Criticisms and Controversies
While the Enneagram has gained popularity in recent years, it has also faced criticisms and controversies. Some critics argue that the Enneagram is not scientifically validated, and that its origins and validity are questionable. Others have criticized the Enneagram for being too simplistic or for perpetuating stereotypes.
Criticisms of the Enneagram
One of the primary criticisms of the Enneagram is that it lacks scientific validation. While some Enneagram researchers have conducted studies on the Enneagram’s validity, the Enneagram has not undergone the rigorous testing and validation required of other psychological assessments. Critics also argue that the Enneagram’s origins and validity are questionable, with some claiming that the Enneagram’s history is murky and that it lacks a clear, verifiable origin.
Other criticisms of the Enneagram include:
- The Enneagram is too simplistic and reductive, reducing complex human personalities to nine basic types.
- The Enneagram reinforces stereotypes and can be used to label and judge others.
- The Enneagram is not a valid tool for personal or spiritual growth.
Common Enneagram Misunderstandings
Another issue with the Enneagram is that it is often misunderstood or misused. Some common misunderstandings of the Enneagram include:
- Believing that the Enneagram is a fixed, unchangeable aspect of one’s personality.
- Using the Enneagram to label and judge others, rather than as a tool for understanding and empathy.
- Believing that the Enneagram is a one-size-fits-all assessment that can accurately categorize all individuals.
Controversies surrounding the Enneagram
In addition to criticisms and misunderstandings, the Enneagram has also faced controversies in recent years. One controversy is that the Enneagram has been linked to various spiritual and religious beliefs, leading some to question its validity and appropriateness in secular contexts. Others have criticized the Enneagram for being a commercialized, profit-driven industry that promotes self-help and self-improvement at the expense of real personal growth.
Another controversy surrounding the Enneagram is that it has been used by some practitioners to diagnose and treat mental health conditions, despite lacking scientific validation as a diagnostic tool.
The Enneagram is a powerful tool for self-awareness, personal growth, and understanding others. Through understanding the Enneagram’s basics, including the nine Enneagram types and wings, individuals can gain a deeper understanding of themselves and others.
Enneagram theory, including the triads, levels of development, centers of intelligence, and harmonic groups, can further deepen this understanding and promote personal growth and development.
Using the Enneagram in practice, such as in personal growth, relationships, the workplace, and spiritual development, can help individuals apply the Enneagram in practical ways and promote greater understanding and empathy.
While the Enneagram has faced criticisms, misunderstandings, and controversies, when used responsibly and with empathy, it can be a powerful tool for personal growth and development.
Continued exploration and learning of the Enneagram can lead to greater personal growth and understanding of oneself and others.
Frequently Asked Questions about the Enneagram
Can you have more than one Enneagram type?
While everyone has a dominant Enneagram type, it is possible to exhibit traits from other types. These traits are known as “wing” types, and they usually sit on either side of your dominant type on the Enneagram symbol.
Can children be typed?
Children can be typed, but it is important to note that their personalities are still developing, so their Enneagram type may change as they grow older. It is also important to approach Enneagram typing with children with care and sensitivity.
Can someone’s Enneagram type change over time?
While it is possible for someone’s Enneagram type to change over time, it is typically a slow and gradual process that occurs as a result of personal growth and development. It is also possible for someone to exhibit traits from other Enneagram types without their dominant type changing.
Is the Enneagram scientifically validated?
The Enneagram is not widely accepted in the scientific community, and there is limited empirical research on its validity and reliability. However, many people find the Enneagram to be a useful tool for personal growth and development.
Can the Enneagram be used in therapy?
The Enneagram can be used in therapy to help individuals better understand their personalities, motivations, and behaviors. However, it is important to work with a licensed therapist who has training in Enneagram-based therapy.
How do I learn my Enneagram type?
There are several ways to learn your Enneagram type, including self-assessment enneagram tests, working with an Enneagram coach or therapist, or through personal reflection and observation of your own behavior and thought patterns.
Is the Enneagram a religious or spiritual tool?
While the Enneagram has roots in spiritual and philosophical traditions, it is not inherently religious or spiritual. It can be used by individuals from a variety of backgrounds and belief systems.
How can I learn more about the Enneagram?
There are many resources available for learning more about the Enneagram, including books, workshops, podcasts, and online communities. It is important to approach the Enneagram with an open mind and a willingness to engage in self-reflection and personal growth.